Clinical Brief: Prevention and Treatment of Influenza in High-Risk Patients with Cardiometabolic Comorbidities

This enduring clinical brief was developed from a primetime symposium at the 2021 CMHC Annual Congress. Moderated by Dr. Gregory Poland, the symposium reviewed the latest literature on the epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for influenza. The panel also highlighted the connection between influenza and other diseases, particularly its impact on cardiovascular diseases. There was an emphasis on the aspects that health care providers should focus on when treating patients with influenza.

Target Audience

This activity is designed for US-based healthcare professionals, including primary care clinicians (PCPs), registered nurses, nurse practitioners (NPs), physician assistants (PAs), endocrinologists, diabetologists, pharmacists, cardiologists, lipidologists, dieticians, and other allied health professionals.

Learning Objectives

After completing this activity, the participant should be better able to:

  • Review the influenza life cycle and the clinical impacts of influenza in patients with chronic cardiometabolic conditions
  • Summarize influenza vaccine recommendations and the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccines in high-risk patients
  • List practical steps and strategies to increase influenza immunization in high-risk cardiometabolic patients
  • Interpret existing and new evidence with traditional and new influenza treatments for high-risk patients, including differences in efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of action
  • Utilize approaches to reducing the burden of influenza in cardiometabolic patients, including prompt treatment with antivirals or referrals
Course summary
Available credit: 
  • 1.00 ABIM MOC and AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
  • 1.00 ACPE Pharmacy
  • 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
  • 1.00 ANCC
  • 1.00 CDE
  • 1.00 Participation
Course opens: 
Course expires: 

Gregory A. Poland, MD, MACP, FRCP (London) (Chair)
Mary Lowell Leary Emeritus Professor of Medicine
Distinguished Investigator, Mayo Clinic
Director, Mayo Vaccine Research Group
Editor-in-Chief, VACCINE
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN

Dr. Poland discloses the following: 

Dr. Poland is the chair of a Safety Evaluation Committee for novel investigational vaccine trials being conducted by Merck Research Laboratories. Dr. Poland offers consultative advice on vaccine development to Merck & Co., Medicago, GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi Pasteur, Emergent Biosolutions, Dynavax, Genentech, Eli Lilly and Company, Johnson & Johnson/Janssen Global Services LLC, Kentucky Bioprocessing, AstraZeneca, and Genevant Sciences, Inc. Dr. Poland holds patents related to vaccinia and measles peptide vaccines. Dr. Poland has received grant funding from ICW Ventures for preclinical studies on a peptide-based COVID-19 vaccine. These activities have been reviewed by the Mayo Clinic Conflict of Interest Review Board and are conducted in compliance with Mayo Clinic Conflict of Interest policies. This research has been reviewed by the Mayo Clinic Conflict of Interest Review Board and was conducted in compliance with Mayo Clinic Conflict of Interest policies.


Professor University of Louisville
Louisville, KY

Dr. Carrico discloses the following: 

  • Consulting Fees: Pfizer, Sanofi Pasteur, Janssen
  • Fees for Non-CE Services Received Directly from an Ineligible Entity or their Agents: Pfizer, Sanofi Pasteur
  • Contracted Research: Pfizer, Sanofi, Janssen


Cameron R. Wolfe, MBBS
Associate Professor of Medicine
Duke University School of Medicine
Durham, NC

Dr. Wolfe discloses the following: 


  • Janssen – RSV Vaccines
  • Biogen – Covid therapeutics
  • Atea – Covid therapeutics
  • Merck – Antivirals CMV

Advisory Boards:

  • MedinCell – Antibiotics
  • Enzychem – Covid therapeutics
  • Adagio – Covid therapeutics
  • Regeneron – Covid therapeutics
  • Gilead – Covid therapeutics

1 hour

Supported by an educational grant from Genentech, a member of the Roche Group.


In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by the Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and Tarsus Cardio Inc. dba Cardiometabolic Health Congress (CMHC). Postgraduate Institute for Medicine is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

The Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

The maximum number of hours awarded for this Continuing Nursing Education activity is 1.0 contact hours. 

Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this continuing education activity for 1.0contact hour(s) (.10 CEUs) of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education.

This is an application-based activity. Universal Activity Numbers (UAN): JA4008162-9999-22-287-H01-P

For Pharmacists: Upon completing the post-test and the activity evaluation form, transcript information will be sent to the NABP CPE Monitor Service within 4 – 6 weeks.

This program offers 1.0 CPEUs for dieticians.


Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 1.0 MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) maintenance of certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit.

Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) requires faculty, planners, and others in control of educational content to disclose all their financial relationships with ineligible companies. All identified conflicts of interest (COI) are thoroughly vetted and mitigated according to PIM policy.  PIM is committed to providing its learners with high quality accredited continuing education activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of an ineligible company.

The PIM planners and others have nothing to disclose. The CMHC planners and others have nothing to disclose.

This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA.  The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.  The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners.  Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.

Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management.  Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient's conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer's product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.

During the period June 1, 2022 through June 1, 2023, participants must read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures, study the educational activity, obtain a score of 75% or better on the post-test, and complete the evaluation. Upon completing, your certificate will be available for print. For questions about receiving certificates, please contact us at

For questions about the accreditation of this activity, please visit

For Pharmacists: Please complete the evaluation instructions above. Upon registering and completing the activity evaluation, your transcript information will be sent to the NABP CPE Monitor Service within 4-6 weeks.

Available Credit

  • 1.00 ABIM MOC and AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
  • 1.00 ACPE Pharmacy
  • 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
  • 1.00 ANCC
  • 1.00 CDE
  • 1.00 Participation
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A computer with an internet connection

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Other additional software may be required such as PowerPoint or Adobe Acrobat Reader.