Challenging Cases in the Management of Aortic Stenosis in Women

There are significant gaps in the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of women with aortic stenosis (AS). Women with symptomatic, severe AS, are significantly less likely than men to receive treatment with any AVR (aortic valve replacement) procedure, and have worse outcomes with SAVR (surgical aortic valve replacement) compared to men. On the other hand, TAVR (transcatheter aortic valve replacement) has been shown to lead to better outcomes in women compared to men, however, significant disparities in treatment persist despite a recent increase in the use of TAVR in this setting

In this activity, expert faculty have put together 3 challenging cases in order to illustrate some of the current gaps in the diagnosis and treatment of AS in women, as well as highlight practical approaches to screening, risk-stratification and decision-making for AVR. 

Target Audience

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of U.S. based endocrinologists, cardiologists, internists, primary care clinicians, obstetricians, pharmacists, physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants.

Learning Objectives

After completing this activity, the participant should be better able to:

  • Recognize the impacts, differences in symptom presentation, and clinical significance of aortic stenosis in women.
  • Outline tailored strategies to screen, diagnose, and risk stratify women with aortic stenosis as a means to identify patient candidates who may benefit from appropriate treatment.
  • Summarize the updated guidelines and evidence from recent clinical trials and real-world studies of TAVR vs. SAVR in women with AS across the risk continuum.
  • Develop individualized treatment plans for women with severe aortic stenosis based on updated evidence, guidelines, and patient-specific clinical presentation and needs.
Course summary
Available credit: 
  • 1.50 ACPE Pharmacy
  • 1.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
  • 1.50 ANCC
  • 1.50 Participation
Course opens: 
Course expires: 


Founder and Director of Step Family
Cardiac Rehabilitation and Wellness Center
Professor of Medicine
UC San Diego Health System

Dr. Taub discloses the following:

Consultant, Advisor, Speaker: Amgen, Novartis, Medtronic, Edwards, Novo Nordisk, Esperion, Boehringer Ingelheim, Sanofi, Bayer, Merck


Angela Lowenstern MD, MHS, FSCAI
Interventional Cardiology
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Vanderbilt University

Dr. Lowenstern discloses the following:

Consultant, Advisor, Speaker: Edwards Lifesciences


Kimberly A. Skelding MD FACC FAHA FASCAI
Associate Professor University of Washington
Confluence Health, WA

Dr. Skelding discloses the following: 

Proctor Faculty: Medtronic


1.5 hours


Supported by an educational grant from Edwards Lifesciences LLC.


In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by Partners for Advancing Clinical Education (PACE) and Cardiometabolic Health Congress (CMHC).  PACE is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

PACE designates this enduring activity for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

The maximum number of hours awarded for this Continuing Nursing Education activity is 1.5 contact hours.

PACE designates this continuing education activity for 1.5 contact hour(s) (0.15 CEUs) of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education.

Universal Activity Number - JA4008073-9999-23-065-H01-P Type of activity: Knowledge

There are no registration fees for this activity. During the period March 10, 2023 through March 10, 2024, participants must read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures, study the educational activity, obtain a score of 75% or better on the post-test, and complete the evaluation.  Upon completing, your certificate will be available for print. For questions about receiving certificates, please contact us at

For additional information about the accreditation of this activity, please visit

For Pharmacists: Please complete the evaluation instructions above. Upon registering and completing the activity evaluation, your transcript information will be sent to the NABP CPE Monitor Service within 4-6 weeks.

The PACE planners and others have no relevant financial relationship(s) to disclose with ineligible companies.
The CMHC planners and others have no relevant financial relationship(s) to disclose with ineligible companies.

PACE requires instructors, planners, managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of this activity to disclose all financial relationships they may have with ineligible companies. All relevant financial relationships are thoroughly vetted and mitigated according to PACE policy. PACE is committed to providing learners with high-quality accredited CE activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of an ineligible company.


This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications. The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.


Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities. 

Available Credit

  • 1.50 ACPE Pharmacy
  • 1.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit
  • 1.50 ANCC
  • 1.50 Participation
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Required Hardware/software

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