Typical Opioid Medications and Classifications

Headline after headline reads “The Opiate Crisis” or “The Opiate Epidemic.” Yet the headlines are dead wrong every single time. “Opioid Pandemic”? Now there we go! Prescription opioids are commonly utilized and scrutinized by every force of nature in our society. It is imperative that healthcare professionals, researchers, and even the lay public fine tune and enhance their understanding of the pharmacology behind the classification of prescription opioids as a foundational starting point. Progressing beyond classifications, one can truly respect the important pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of prescription opioids to provide the highest quality patient care with respect to medication selection, dosage, side effects, and drug interactions. Patients deserve this and more!

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Mark Garofoli,


Mark Garofoli, PharmD, MBA, BCGP, CPE is a Clinical Pain Management Pharmacist at the WVU Medicine Center for Integrative Pain Management, a faculty member in the WVU School of Medicine Pain Fellowship Program, and a Clinical Assistant Professor and Director of Experiential Learning for the West Virginia University (WVU) School of Pharmacy (SoP). Dr. Garofoli received his PharmD at the University of Pittsburgh SoP in 2004 and his MBA from Strayer University in 2008. He is board certified in Geriatric Care (BGCP) along with being a certified pain educator (CPE) and certified tobacco treatment specialist (CTTS). Dr. Garofoli began his career with CVS Health in community pharmacy management, then worked as a Humana Healthcare MTM clinical pharmacist, leading to the development of patient-centered and managed care centered programs and the Safe & Effective Management of Pain West Virginia guidelines. Mark has consulted as a CDC grant reviewer, a professional journals reviewer, a civil and criminal expert witness, and is the host of the “PAIN POD” on the Pharmacy Podcast Network with an international audience of 80,000 healthcare professionals. Mark’s professional passions lie within pain management and addiction patient care and education for healthcare professionals and society alike, in essence, trying to make a difference.

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